November is Diabetes Awareness Month. You probably know someone with Diabetes Mellitus and that’s because nearly 1 in 4 adults are living with diabetes. Do you know what Diabetes is? How or when are you screened for it?
There are two types of Diabetes Mellitus. Type 1 and Type 2.
Let's first talk about the culprit. PANCREAS. Your pancreas produces several hormones and one of those being insulin. One of insulin’s job is bring glucose from the blood into cells of different organ systems. Glucose is one of the body’s key source of energy.
In Type 1 Diabetes, your pancreas losses the ability to produce insulin. This type is due to an autoimmune attack. Your own body forming an attack response on normal cell it views as foreign.
In Type 2 Diabetes, your pancreas is insulin resistant. This means your body is less responsive to insulin.
Screening for type 2 Diabetes is recommended.
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening for abnormal blood glucose and type 2 diabetes in adults ages 40-70 years who are overweight or obese. If the results are normal, repeat every 3 years. Those who are of higher risk should receive an earlier repeat screening.
Screening can be earlier if you have one of the following
Have a family history of diabetes
Have a history of gestational diabetes
Polycystic ovarian syndrome
Are members of certain racial/ethnic groups (that is, African Americans, American Indians or Alaskan Natives, Asian Americans, Hispanics or Latinos, or Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders) may be at increased risk for diabetes at a younger age or at a lower body mass index.
In children, American Diabetes Association recommends screening if 18 years and younger who are overweight AND fit any of the two risk factors: history of type 2 diabetes in a first- or second-degree relative, belonging to a high-risk ethnic group (African Americans, American Indians or Alaskan Natives, Asian Americans, Hispanics or Latinos, or Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders), acanthosis nigricans, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or polycystic ovary syndrome.
How do you screen for Diabetes Mellitus?
Fasting glucose- check of your glucose levels at a fasting state OR
Hemoglobin A1c- ranges of your glucose in the last 3 months OR
Random glucose- Check of your glucose at at any given time.
The diagnosis can be made with
A fasting plasma glucose level of 126 mg per dL or greater
An A1C level of 6.5% or greater;
A random plasma glucose level of 200 mg per dL or greater.
Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus include increase thirst, increase urination, and increase food intake among many nonspecific symptoms. At times with Diabetes Mellitus 2, you are asymptomatic and usually diagnosed at screening.
Early diagnoses helps with decreasing the complications of diabetes such as damage to your nerves, kidneys, Blood vessels, and eyes.
If you have concerns, please talk to your physician.
Hope you learn something today!
All the best!